marketing communications essays

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Many ways and means of marketing and promotion have been introduced with the growth in technology and IMC helps in bringing them together. Different elements are integrated in Apple Inc promotional mix Holm, These include Advertising, Public relations or publicity, Sales promotion, direct marketing and Personal selling. This is a paid form of promotion idea, goods and services by an identifiable person. The marketer generates a standard message about prices, merits and availability of the goods and services.

It aims at appealing to the customers to buy the goods and services. Its feature includes paid form, impersonality and the sponsor is identified. It is advantageous in that it helps reach a wide market. Any message given to radio and TV stations will definitely reach different corners of the world. In addition, there are many available media for advertising. These include audio, video, audiovisual and print media.

The marketer selects the media based on the target customers Pujari, Another advantage is that legitimacy. In advertisement, the message is publicly given to customers who in turn believe that a company cannot publicly give false information. A customer will feel comfortable buying a good that is widely advertised. Advertising is also disadvantageous in that there is no direct communication between the marketer and the customer. The marketer just assumes that the message has reached its destination.

In addition, there is no feedback. The customers have no chance to give their feedback. This refers to the use of incentives to stimulate the customer into buying the product. The method is advantageous in that it has an immediate effect on the customer. In addition, it is useful when introducing a new product in that it gives people the chance to try a new product. It also makes other promotional methods effective by aiding them.

It is easy to sell, products when there is incentives Pujari, It is however disadvantageous in that it reflects the possibility of a crisis. When a company offer incentives now and then, it may be an indication that the products are not being demanded.

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In addition, the buyer may feel that the product is off low quality. This means selling personally. It involves selling face to face. It is advantageous in that the buyer gets the chance to clarify any doubts. In addition, the seller receives feedback directly from the customer.

When the buyer and the seller interact, their relationship is improved. It is also easy to convince a customer to but a product when in a face to face conversation Pujari, It is however disadvantageous in that the seller cannot reach many people as compared to other methods such as advertising. This entails maintaining good relations with the public who are the customers. Companies create good will by maintaining public relations.

Public relation evaluates the attitude of the public also identifies the policies to be used in earning the public trust and acceptance. It is advantageous in that it helps to overcome any dislike or complains from the public. In addition, it moulds the attitude of the public in favour of the company Pujari, It is also used to build the brand image.

It is disadvantageous in that the company cannot have control over the channels used to the message mainly the media. In marketing, communication is very significant. The success of any marketing method used depends on how well the customers get and perceive the message.

Integrated Marketing Communication Essay example

When developing the promotional strategy, it is significant to evaluate the available communication channels and methods suitable. However, the promotional mix used will determine the communication strategy. For example if advertising is to be used, then a message has to be developed to be aired on the television and radio stations. The same method would not be used if sales promotion is to be used as the marketing strategy.

A pull strategy relies more on consumer demand than personal selling for the product to travel from the manufacturer to the end user. A push strategy, on the other hand, emphasizes personal selling to push the product through these channels.

Traditionally, marketing communications practitioners focused on the creation and execution of printed marketing collateral; however, academic and professional research developed the practice to use strategic elements of branding and marketing in order to ensure consistency of message delivery throughout an organization.

Many trends in business can be attributed to marketing communications; for example: the transition from customer service to customer relations, and the transition from human resources to human solutions. For marketing communication to be successful, sound management decisions must be made in the other three areas of the marketing mix: the product, service or idea itself; the price at which the brand will be offered; and the places at or through which customers may purchase the brand. The best promotion cannot overcome poor product quality, inordinately high prices, or insufficient retail distribution.

Likewise, successful marketing communication relies on sound management decisions regarding the coordination of the various elements of the promotional mix. To this end, a new way of viewing marketing communication emerged in the s. It is called integrated marketing communication; this perspective seeks to orchestrate the use of all forms of the promotional mix to reach customers at different levels in new and better ways. The evolution of the above mentioned perspective has two origins. Marketers began to realize that advertising, public relations, and sales were often at odds regarding responsibilities, budgets, management input and myriad other decisions affecting the successful marketing of a brand.

Executives in each area competed with the others for resources and a voice in decision making. The outcome was inconsistent promotional efforts, wasted money, counterproductive management decisions, and, perhaps worst of all, confusion among consumers. Secondly, the marketing perspective itself began to shift from being market oriented to market driven.

A Guide for Prioritizing Marketing Communications: Nick Scarpino at TEDxUofIChicago

Advertising was the dominant element in the promotional mix because the mass media could effectively deliver a sales message to a mass audience. But then the mass market began to fragment. Consumers became better educated and more skeptical about advertising. A variety of sources, both controlled by the marketer and uncontrolled, became important to consumers. Advertising began to lose some of its luster in terms of its ability to deliver huge homogeneous audiences.

Companies began to seek new ways to coordinate the multiplicity of product and company messages being issued and used by consumers and others. Thus, two ideas permeate integrated marketing communication: relationship building and synergy. Customers are viewed not as targets but as partners in an ongoing relationship. Customers, prospects, and others encounter the brand and company through a host of sources and create from these various contacts ideas about the brand and company. By knowing the media habits and lifestyles of important consumer segments, marketers can tailor messages through media that are most likely to reach these segments at times when these segments are most likely to be receptive to these messages, thus optimizing the marketing communication effort.


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Ideally, integrated marketing communication is implemented by developing comprehensive databases on customers and prospects, segmenting these current and potential customers into groups with certain common awareness levels, predispositions, and behaviors, and developing messages and media strategies that guide the communication tactics to meet marketing objectives. In doing this, integrated marketing communication builds and reinforces mutually profitable relationships with customers and other important stakeholders and generates synergy by coordinating all elements in the promotional mix into a program that possesses clarity, consistency, and maximum impact.

Practitioners and academics alike, however, have noted the difficulty of effectively implementing integrated marketing communication.

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Defining exactly what integrated marketing communication is has been difficult. Also, changing the organization to accommodate the integrated approach has challenged the command and control structure of many organizations. Advertising has four characteristics: it is persuasive in nature; it is non-personal; it is paid for by an identified sponsor; and it is disseminated through mass channels of communication.

Advertising messages may promote the adoption of goods, services, persons, or ideas. However, its non-personal nature means it lacks the ability to tailor the sales message to the message recipient and, more importantly, actually get the sale. Therefore, advertising effects are best measured in terms of increasing awareness and changing attitudes and opinions, not creating sales. The contribution advertising makes to sales are best viewed over the long run. The exception to this thinking is within the internet arena. Through the use of symbols and images advertising can help differentiate products and services that are otherwise similar.

Advertising also helps create and maintain brand equity. Brand equity is an intangible asset that results from a favorable image, impressions of differentiation, or consumer attachment to the company, brand, or trademark. Brand equity is established and maintained through advertising that focuses on image, product attributes, service, or other features of the company and its products or services. Cost is the greatest disadvantage of advertising.

The average cost for a second spot on network television increased fivefold between and Plus, the average cost of producing a second ad for network television is quite expensive.

It is not uncommon for a national advertiser to spend in the millions of dollars for one second commercial to be produced. Add more millions on top of that if celebrity talent is utilized. Credibility and clutter are other disadvantages. Advertising is everywhere, from network television, to daily newspapers, to roadside billboards, to golf course signs, to stickers on fruit in grocery stores. Clutter encourages consumers to ignore many advertising messages. New media are emerging, such as digital video recorders which allow consumers to record programs and then skip commercials, and satellite radio which provides a majority of its channels advertising free.

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Integrated Marketing Communication Essay example - Words | Cram

Public relations is defined as a management function which identifies, establishes, and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics upon which its success or failure depends. Whereas advertising is a one-way communication from sender the marketer to the receiver the consumer or the retail trade , public relations considers multiple audiences consumers, employees, suppliers, vendors, etc. A primary tool used by public relations practitioners is publicity.

Publicity capitalizes on the news value of a product, service, idea, person or event so that the information can be disseminated through the news media. Articles in the media are perceived as being more objective than advertisements, and their messages are more likely to be absorbed and believed. For example, after the CBS newsmagazine 60 Minutes reported in the early s that drinking moderate amounts of red wine could prevent heart attacks by lowering cholesterol; red wine sales in the United States increased 50 percent.

The other benefit publicity offers is that it is free, not considering the great amount of effort it can require to get out-bound publicity noticed and picked up by media sources. As advertising loses some of its cost-effectiveness, marketers are turning to news coverage, events, and community programs to help disseminate their product and company messages. Some consumers may also base their purchase decisions on the image of the company, for example, how environmentally responsible the company is.

Direct marketing, the oldest form of marketing, is the process of communicating directly with target customers to encourage response by telephone, mail, electronic means, or personal visit. Users of direct marketing include retailers, wholesalers, manufacturers, and service providers, and they use a variety of methods including direct mail, telemarketing, direct-response advertising, and online computer shopping services, cable shopping networks, and infomercials.